Taxonomy

Impatiens glandulifera | Indian Balsam | Lus na pléisce

Distribution

Status

Conservation status

Not Assessed

Legal status

Third Schedule listed species under Regulations 49 & 50 in the European Communities (Birds and Natural Habitats) Regulations 2011. (Note: Regulation 50 not yet enacted).

Listed as a schedule 9 species under Articles 15 & 15A of the Wildlife Order (Northern Ireland) 1985 (Article 15A not yet enacted).

Regulated invasive  species of Union concern under the European Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species [1143/2014].

First reported in the wild

1906

Invasiveness

Invasive species - risk of High Impact

Irish status

Established

Introduction pathways - 1

Escape from Confinement

Introduction pathways subclass - 1

Ornamental purpose

Invasive score

18

NAPRA Ireland risk assessed

Yes

Species Biology

Identification

Annual herb, erect stem up to 2m, flowers deep pink or purple to white, leaves opposite and in whorls of 3, 2.5-4cm (Stace, 1997).

Ecology

Can cause soil erosion on river banks, as well as affecting downstream, instream communities by the addition of nutrient rich sediment (Greenwood & Kuhn. 2014). Presence of I. glandulifera may decrease plant species richness by 25% (Hulme & Bremner, 2006), as well as promoting the spread of other invasive species, even upon removal, by altering the soil fungal communities (specifically the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)) to the detriment of native species (Tanner & Gange, 2013). Stands of I. glandulifera support a lower diversity of Coleoptera and Heteroptera insect species than similar uninvaded plots (Tanner et al., 2014).

Habitat

Mires, bogs & fens; Heath, scrubland & tundra; Woodland, forest and other wooded land; Regularly or recently cultivated agricultural, horticultural or domestic habitat

Reproduction

Seed production in I. glandulifera is dependent on plant density, with seed production decreasing with increased plant density but range from 500 - 2500 seeds per plant (Beerling & Perrins, 1993).

Pathway and vector description

Previously popular garden plant promoted by bee keepers (Millane & Caffrey, 2014), in some cases it escaped from cultivation, though it may have been deliberately spread as was the case in the UK (Rotherham, 2000).

Mechanism of impact

Competition

Management approach

There is currently an EU wide ban on the sale, growing and keeping of this plant (European Commission, 2017).To achieve complete control measures must be implemented on an ongoing basis for several years (EPPO, 2005). When tackling infestations along waterways, in order to avoid reinfestation by seeds travelling downstream, work should start upstream and proceed in a downstream direction (EPPO, 2005).

Manual

Very shallow roots mean that this species can be easily hand-pulled but care must be taken to remove all parts of the plant (Helmisaari, 2010). Should be carried out before seed set, usually at the end of July (Helmisaari, 2010). If seeds are already present the heads can be bagged and then cut off before the rest of the plant is removed (Kelly et al., 2008).

Mechanical

Infestations can readily be controlled in accessible areas by mowing/strimming at appearance of first flowers to prevent the setting of seed. Cutting earlier than the start of flowering will encourage shoot regeneration (EPPO, 2005; Helmisaari, 2010; Q-bank, undated). Strimming/mowing should remove the plant below the first node.

Chemical

Can be controlled by spraying in June with 2,4-D, tricolpyr or glyphosate (EPPO, 2005). Some formulations of glyphosate are approved in Ireland for use near water. Where the plant hasn't achieved complete dominance a weed wiper can be used to apply glyphosate to avoid contacting non-target species (Kelly et al., 2008).

Cultural

Grazing by livestock can be used to eliminate stands of Impatiens glandulifera where access is possible. (EPPO, 2005; Helmisaari, 2010; Q-bank, undated). This may need to be repeated annually.

Disposal

Plant material, with the exception of seeds, can be composted. Material contaminated by seeds must be disposed of by 'deep burial' (Department of Agriculture and the Marine, undated).

Monitoring

Areas that have undergone control measures should be monitored for several weeks for any regrowth (EPPO, 2005).

Broad environment

Terrestrial

Habitat description

Found on riversides, roadsides, waste ground and former cultivated fields, prefers damp ground (Reynolds, 2002).

Species group

Plant

Native region

Tropical Asia

Distribution

World distribution(GBIF)

Irish distribution

Established - Widespread. Locally abundant, naturalised though still spreading, can form dense stands (Reynolds, 2002).

Native distribution

Originally native to the Himalayan mountain region this species has been cultivated in China for centuries and those plants may represent the source of the introduction (Rotherham, 2000).

Temporal change

Date of first record category

1901-1910

Fifty year date category

1901-1950

Records submitted to Data Centre in 2017

The following map is interactive. If you would prefer to view it full screen then click here.

How can you help

Report any sightings to the National Biodiversity Data Centre. Do not purchase this plant. Dispose of garden waste responsibly and never plant non-native species in the wild.

Further information

Delivering Alien Invasive Species In Europe (DAISIE) project list this as one of the 100 Worst Invaders in Europe.

References

Publications

Beerling, D.J. and Perrins, J.M. (1993) Impatiens glandulifera Royle (Impatiens roylei Walp.). Journal of Ecology, 81, 367-382.

Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Ireland) (undated) Invasive plant information note – Himalayan balsam Impatiens glandulifera. https://www.agriculture.gov.ie/media/migration/farmingschemesandpayments/glastraining/HimalayanBalsamFinalDraft230616.pdf Site accessed 25 September 2017.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) (2005) Draft EPPO data sheet on invasive plants – Impatiens glandulifera. EPPO. Paris.   https://www.eppo.int/INVASIVE_PLANTS/ias_lists.htm Site accessed 25 September 2017.

European Commission. (2017). Invasive Alien Species of Union Concern. European Union, Luxembourg.

Greenwood, P., & Kuhn, N. J. (2014). Does the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, promote soil erosion along the riparian zone? An investigation on a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 14(3), 637-650.

Helmisaari, H. (2010): NOBANIS – Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet – Impatiens glandulifera. – From: Online Database of the European Network on Invasive Alien Species – NOBANIS www.nobanis.org Site accessed 25 September 2017.

Hulme P.E & Bremner E.T., 2006. Assessing the impact of Impatiens glandulifera on riparian habitats: partitioning diversity components following species removal. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 43-50.

Kelly, J., Maguire, C.M. and Cosgrove, P.J. (2008). Best practice management guidelines Himalayan balsam Impatiens glandulifera. Prepared for NIEA and NPWS as part of Invasive Species Ireland. http://www.nonnativespecies.org/index.cfm?pageid=147 Site accessed 25 September 2017.

Millane, M. & Caffrey, J. (2014). Risk Assessment of Impatiens glandulifera Royle – Himalayan Balsam. Report prepared for Inland Fisheries Ireland and the National Biodiversity Data Centre.

Q-bank (2017) Q-bank factsheet Impatiens glandulifera Royle, Indian Balsam. http://www.q-bank.eu/Plants/Factsheets/Impatiens_glandulifera_EN.pdf  Site accessed 25 September 2017.

Reynolds, S.C.P. (2002) A catalogue of alien plants in Ireland. National Botanic Gardens. Glasnevin, Dublin.

Rotherham. I.P. (2000). Exotic Invasive Species – should we be concerned? Himalayan balsam - the human touch. Proceedings of the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management Conference, Birmingham, April, 2000.

Stace, C. (1997). New Flora of the British Isles 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Tanner, R. A., Varia, S., Eschen, R., Wood, S., Murphy, S. T., & Gange, A. C. (2013). Impacts of an invasive non-native annual weed, Impatiens glandulifera, on above-and below-ground invertebrate communities in the United Kingdom. PloS one, 8(6), e67271.

Tanner, R. A., & Gange, A. C. (2013). The impact of two non-native plant species on native flora performance: potential implications for habitat restoration. Plant Ecology, 214(3), 423-432.

Global Invasive Species Database

Invasive Species Ireland

DAISIE Factsheet

CABI Datasheet