Taxonomy

Triadica sebifera | Chinese tallow tree | Crann geire Síneach

Pre 2017

2017 - 2020

Status

Legal status

Regulated invasive species of Union concern under the European Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species [1143/2014].

Native status

Non-native

First reported in the wild

Not present in Ireland or Northern Ireland.

Invasiveness

Invasive species - risk of Medium Impact

Irish status

Absent

Introduction pathways - 1

Escape from Confinement

Introduction pathways subclass - 1

Ornamental purpose

Invasive score

14

NAPRA Ireland risk assessed

No

Species Biology

Identification

Triadica sebifera is a species of deciduous tree native to China, Japan and South Korea that can grow up to 16 m in height (Invasive Species Ireland, 2021). It belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) (Encyclopedia of Life, 2021). This species has a reddish-brown bark with narrow ridges separated by wide fissures (Global Invasive Species Database, 2021). Triadica sebifera exudes a milky sap that can be harmful (Brundu et al., 2018). Branches begin low on the trunk and are usually long and drooping towards the ground (Brundu et al., 2018). The leaves are alternate and broad rhombic to ovate (Broadest in the middle to broader below the middle) and are 3-8 cm long with a width of 3-6 cm (Global Invasive Species Database, 2021). Leaves are green with the upper surface being a darker shade and the undersides being paler (Global Invasive Species Database, 2021). Triadica sebifera produces small, yellow flowers and brown fruits (Invasive Species Ireland, 2021).

Ecology

Triadica sebifera is monoecious which means that the male and female flowers can be found on the same plant (CABI, 2021). This species has been reported to produce up to 100,000 seeds per individual (CABI, 2021). The seeds produced are hardy and can remain viable for years with a high proportion of seeds producing seedlings (CABI, 2021). In its native range, Triadica sebifera flowers from April to August and produces fruit from August to December (CABI, 2021).
Triadica sebifera is best suited to areas with a mean annual temperature range of 15-30ºC, but can tolerate cold temperatures (CABI, 2021). Suitable annual rainfall would range from 1500 mm to 2800 mm but it can tolerate drought conditions for up to 5 months (CABI, 2021). This species can survive in a wide variety of soil types (CABI, 2021).

Habitat

Triadica sebifera can be found in a wide variety of habitats such as grasslands, wetlands, woodlands, coastal habitats, heathland, scrub and tundra and habitat complexes (Brundu et al., 2018).

Mechanism of impact

Competition

Management approach

Prevention
As Triadica sebifera is listed as an Invasive Alien Species of Union concern under the EU Regulations of Invasive Alien Species, it cannot be imported, traded, or released to the wild. Measures must also be taken to prevent spread of existing populations of it (European Commission, 2017).

Mechanical control
Physically removing seedlings by hand is a viable method for controlling this species but care must be taken to ensure the entire root is removed or control will not be achieved (CABI, 2021). Cutting is most impactful after they flower and before they produce seed (CABI, 2021). This approach will only work for seedlings and mature individuals will need to be chemically treated.

Chemical control
Herbicides such as glyphosate can be used to control this species. Herbicides can either be applied directly to the leaves or applied to cut stems (CABI, 2021). The application of herbicides should be carefully managed to avoid damaging any non-target species.

Broad environment

Terrestrial

Species group

Plant

Native region

Temperate Asia

Distribution

World distribution(GBIF)

Native distribution

Native to China, Japan and South Korea (Brundu et al., 2018).

Temporal change

Records submitted to Data Centre in 2021

The following map is interactive. If you would prefer to view it full screen then click here.

How can you help

Report any sightings of this species to the National Biodiversity Data Centre, including a photograph, if possible.
Dispose of unwanted specimens in a responsible manner that does not allow them in to the natural environment.
Avoid purchasing this species for ornamental purposes.

References

Publications

Brundu, G., Chapman, D., Flory S., L., Le Roux, J., Pescott, O., Siemann, E., Starfinger, U. and Tanner, R., 2018. Pest Risk assessment for Triadica sebifera. [online] Available at: <https://circabc.europa.eu/faces/jsp/extension/wai/navigation/container.jsp?FormPrincipal:_idcl=FormPrincipal:_id1&FormPrincipal_SUBMIT=1&id=b0bc7f99-2250-430b-86c1-71104d4c2f4d&javax.faces.ViewState=5E%2FPslRLUGlkXt34nr7txxEdVHy7IsfsfGaaUq4fW3fKXGitj98kmh> [Accessed 15 Jul. 2021].

CABI, 2021. Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree). [online] Available at: <https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/48351#todescription> [Accessed 15 Jul. 2021].

Encyclopedia of Life, 2021. Chinese Tallow Triadica sebifera. [online] Available at: <https://eol.org/pages/1149652> [Accessed 15 Jul. 2021].

European Commission, 2017. Invasive Alien Species of Union concern. [online] Luxembourg. Available at: <https://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/pdf/IAS_brochure_species.pdf> [Accessed 25 Jun. 2021].

Global Invasive Species Database, 2021. Triadica sebifera. [online] Available at: <http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=712> [Accessed 15 Jul. 2021].

Invasive Species Ireland, 2021. Triadica sebifera. [online] Available at: <http://invasivespeciesireland.com/species-accounts/potential/terrestrial/chinese-tallow> [Accessed 15 Jul. 2021].