Taxonomy

Pastinaca sativa | Wild Parsnip | Cuirdín bán

Distribution

Status

Conservation status

Not protected

Native status

Neophyte

First reported in the wild

pre-1866

Invasiveness

Invasive species - risk of Medium Impact

Irish status

Established

Introduction pathways - 1

Escape from Confinement

Introduction pathways subclass - 1

Agriculture

Invasive score

15

NAPRA Ireland risk assessed

No

Species Biology

Identification

'Wild parsnip', above ground plant consists of an upright rosette for 1 or more years before producing a flowering stalk terminating in a yellow umbrel, difficult to distinguish from cultivated parsnip (Stace, 1997).

Ecology

Effects on native biota not widely studied. Causes phytophotodermatitis (blistering and burning of the skin in the presence of sunlight) in humans and livestock (Averill & DiTommaso, 2007), and has the potential to be a public health nuisance if populations expand.

Habitat

Grasslands and landscapes dominated by forbs, mosses or lichens; Regularly or recently cultivated agricultural, horticultural or domestic habitat; Constructed, industrial or other artificial habitats; Inland unvegetated or sparsely vegetated habitats

Reproduction

A wild parsnip population in Illinois produced an average of 1.9 g of seed per plant ( Zangerl & Berenbaum, 1997). Does not reproduce vegetatively (Hendrix & Trapp, 1992).

Life cycle

Biennial

Ex-situ conservation

Seed accessions in the National Genebank, Backweston (wild seed collected in 2009)

Use

Food crop

Vegetative nature

Herbaceous

Pathway and vector description

Originally an escape from cultivation, recorded in Ireland pre 1866 (Reynolds, 2002). The cultivated variety of parsnip is a sub species (Pastinaca sativa ssp. sativa) (Averill & DiTommaso, 2007).

Mechanism of impact

Competition, Poisoning/Toxicity

Broad environment

Terrestrial

Habitat description

Primarily found on waste ground but also as a weed in agricultural fields (Reynolds, 2002).

Species group

Plant

Native region

Europe

Distribution

World distribution(GBIF)

Irish distribution

Occasional - Occasionally present though established locally (Reynolds, 2002), though distribution may be an artefact of recording effort.

Native distribution

Certainly native to Europe but some confusion as to extent of its range due to taxonomic confusion surrounding species, long history of cultivation and historical confusion with carrots (Averill & DiTommaso, 2007).

Temporal change

Date of first record category

Pre-1900

Fifty year date category

Unknown

Records submitted to Data Centre in 2022

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Further information

Introduced and can be persistant where it occurs. It is known to be in Dublin for over 200 years but also has been introduced to some roadside verges via wild flower seed mixtures in recent times. It is the CWR of the cultivated parsnip.

References

Publications

Reynolds, S.C.P. (2002) A catalogue of alien plants in Ireland. National Botanic Gardens. Glasnevin, Dublin. Preston, C.D., Pearman, D. A. & Dines, T. D. (2002). New atlas of the British and Irish flora. An atlas of the vascular plants of Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, Oxford University Press. Stace, C. (1997). New Flora of the British Isles 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Hendrix, S. D., & Trapp, E. J. (1992). Population demography of Pastinaca sativa (Apiaceae): effects of seed mass on emergence, survival, and recruitment. American journal of botany, 365-375. Zangerl, A. R., & Berenbaum, M. R. (1997). Cost of chemically defending seeds: furanocoumarins and Pastinaca sativa. The American Naturalist, 150(4), 491-504.

CABI Datasheet

Images