Pastinaca sativa | Wild Parsnip | Cuirdín bán
First reported in the wild
Invasive species - risk of Medium Impact
Introduction pathways - 1
Escape from Confinement
Introduction pathways subclass - 1
NAPRA Ireland risk assessed
'Wild parsnip', above ground plant consists of an upright rosette for 1 or more years before producing a flowering stalk terminating in a yellow umbrel, difficult to distinguish from cultivated parsnip (Stace, 1997).
Effects on native biota not widely studied. Causes phytophotodermatitis (blistering and burning of the skin in the presence of sunlight) in humans and livestock (Averill & DiTommaso, 2007), and has the potential to be a public health nuisance if populations expand.
Grasslands and landscapes dominated by forbs, mosses or lichens; Regularly or recently cultivated agricultural, horticultural or domestic habitat; Constructed, industrial or other artificial habitats; Inland unvegetated or sparsely vegetated habitats
A wild parsnip population in Illinois produced an average of 1.9 g of seed per plant ( Zangerl & Berenbaum, 1997). Does not reproduce vegetatively (Hendrix & Trapp, 1992).
Seed accessions in the National Genebank, Backweston (wild seed collected in 2009)
Pathway and vector description
Originally an escape from cultivation, recorded in Ireland pre 1866 (Reynolds, 2002). The cultivated variety of parsnip is a sub species (Pastinaca sativa ssp. sativa) (Averill & DiTommaso, 2007).
Mechanism of impact
Primarily found on waste ground but also as a weed in agricultural fields (Reynolds, 2002).
Occasional - Occasionally present though established locally (Reynolds, 2002), though distribution may be an artefact of recording effort.
Certainly native to Europe but some confusion as to extent of its range due to taxonomic confusion surrounding species, long history of cultivation and historical confusion with carrots (Averill & DiTommaso, 2007).
Date of first record category
Fifty year date category
Records submitted to Data Centre in 2022
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Introduced and can be persistant where it occurs. It is known to be in Dublin for over 200 years but also has been introduced to some roadside verges via wild flower seed mixtures in recent times. It is the CWR of the cultivated parsnip.
Reynolds, S.C.P. (2002) A catalogue of alien plants in Ireland. National Botanic Gardens. Glasnevin, Dublin. Preston, C.D., Pearman, D. A. & Dines, T. D. (2002). New atlas of the British and Irish flora. An atlas of the vascular plants of Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, Oxford University Press. Stace, C. (1997). New Flora of the British Isles 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Hendrix, S. D., & Trapp, E. J. (1992). Population demography of Pastinaca sativa (Apiaceae): effects of seed mass on emergence, survival, and recruitment. American journal of botany, 365-375. Zangerl, A. R., & Berenbaum, M. R. (1997). Cost of chemically defending seeds: furanocoumarins and Pastinaca sativa. The American Naturalist, 150(4), 491-504.