Quercus cerris | Turkey Oak



Conservation status

Not Assessed

First reported in the wild



Invasive species - risk of Medium Impact

Irish status

Occasionally present, casual, vagrant, migratory

Introduction pathways - 1

Release in Nature

Introduction pathways subclass - 1

Landscape/flora/fauna improvement

Invasive score


NAPRA Ireland risk assessed


Species Biology


Deciduous oak tree up to 40m tall; leaves 9-12cm long, dark green with 4-9 lobes; acorn cup covered in long scales and covering half the acorn (Booy et al., 2015).


Impacts of Quercus cerris invasion are associated with the subsequent introduction and survival of three oak gall wasps (Andricus corruptrix, A. kollari and A. lignicola), which alternate on native oak trees damaging them (Walker et al., 2002), though it may replace native vegetation if spread mirrors that of in Britain (Preston et al., 2004).


Woodland, forest and other wooded land; Constructed, industrial or other artificial habitats

Pathway and vector description

Widely planted as an ornamental tree in woodlands, parks, roadsides and gardens (Preston et al., 2004). Thought to rarely self sow in Ireland with only 4 reports of seedlings (Reynolds, 2002), it is thought to have undergone a rapid expansion in range in Britain since the 1960s despite being present in the wild since 1905 (Preston et al., 2004), it is unknown if a similar pattern is occurring here. Widely sold in garden centres.

Mechanism of impact

Competition, Disease transmission

Broad environment


Habitat description

Found in parks, woodlands, gardens, roadsides and old estates (Preston et al., 2004; Reynolds, 2002).

Species group


Native region

Europe, Temperate Asia

Similar species

Quercus ilex, Quercus rubra


World distribution(GBIF)

Irish distribution

Occasional - Widespread - Rarely established, occasionally self sown (Reynolds, 2002). Distribution may be an artefact of recording effort.

Native distribution

Native to southern Europe and south west Asia, though naturalised in much of Europe (Preston et al., 2004).

Temporal change

Date of first record category


Fifty year date category


Records submitted to Data Centre in 2023

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How can you help

Report any sightings to the National Biodiversity Data Centre.



Reynolds, S.C.P. (2002) A catalogue of alien plants in Ireland. National Botanic Gardens. Glasnevin, Dublin. Preston, C.D., Pearman, D. A. & Dines, T. D. (2002). New atlas of the British and Irish flora. An atlas of the vascular plants of Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, Oxford University Press. Booy, O., Wade, M. & Roy, H. (2015) A Field Guide to Invasive Plants & Animals in Britain. Bloomsbury. Walker, P., Leather, S. R., & Crawley, M. J. (2002). Differential rates of invasion in three related alien oak gall wasps (Cynipidae: Hymenoptera). Diversity and Distributions, 8(6), 335-349.