Primula veris | Cowslip | Bainne bó bleachtáin
Native species, apart from much of Northern Ireland, where most populations are now thought to be introductions.
First reported in the wild
NAPRA Ireland risk assessed
- Plants grow to about 30 cm, and flower in
April and May.
- The yellow flowers are borne in groups on
the top of a single long downy flowering stem (scape).
- The corolla (petals) is
a tube with short lobes spreading to around 10mm across. Each is loosely surrounded
by a pale green calyx (sepals joined in a tube) with pointed tips.
- The flowers
are said to smell of apricot, and have orange marks inside.
- The wrinkled leaves grow in a rosette, and are
pinched in abruptly to the petiole (leaf stalk),
unlike the leaves of Primrose which taper gradually. They are lightly furry on
both sides and grow to 15 cm long
Primrose (Primula vulgaris) is a common and familiar close relative of Cowslip.
Primroses and Cowslips can hybridise if they grow close to one another, resulting in Primula x polyantha, sometimes called False Oxlip. They can be identified by the larger paler flowers, intermediate between the two parents, as in the photo above. (Note that Oxlip, Primula elatior, is not found in the wild in Ireland.)
Adult habitat & habits
Cowslips grow in natural and semi natural grassy habitats on calcareous and base-rich soils.
In some parts of Ireland Cowslips are quite common, however in others they are rare and almost lost. In Northern Ireland they are so rare that they are a protected species. They are often planted along roadsides and in gardens, so are more likely to be native away from road verges.
Natural and semi natural grassy habitats on calcareous and base-rich soils are under threat of being lost due to land abandonment, changes of use, and agricultural improvement.
Irish reference specimens
Pathway and vector description
BSBI distribution map
Distribution frequency in Ireland
Records submitted to Data Centre in 2021
The following map is interactive. If you would prefer to view it full screen then click here.
How can you help
Irish Species Project: If you have seen Cowslip or any of the species in the Irish Species Project, please fill out a recording form. It can be downloaded here, and you can also download the guidance document for detailed instructions (both also available at http://www.bsbi.org.uk/ireland.html
You can also get in touch with your local BSBI Vice County Recorder via Maria Long, BSBI Irish Officer (firstname.lastname@example.org contact her if you have any questions.
Spring flowering plants project: Cowslip is also one of the species in our 2016 spring flowering plants project. All casual sightings submitted are very valuable.
Full list of species included in the spring flowering plants project:
- Common Dog-violet
- Early Dog-violet
- Early-purple Orchid
- Lady’s smock (Cuckooflower)
- Lesser Celandine
- Lords-and Ladies
- Wild Garlic
- Winter Heliotrope
- Wood Anemone
- Wood Sorrel
Irish Species Project: one of eight species chosen for the Irish Species Project, a two year recording effort by the Irish division of the Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland (BSBI). All eight species are thought to be declining, at least in parts of their range. Full list of eight species included in the Irish Species Project:
Moonwort (Botrychium lunaria), Cyperus Sedge (Carex pseudocyperus), Autumn Gentian (Gentianella amarella), Toothwort (Lathraea squamaria), Grass-of-Parnassus (Parnassia palustris), Cowslip (Primula veris), Common Wintergreen (Pyrola minor), Cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos)
Spring flowering plants project: this project is a collaboration between the National Biodiversity Data Centre and the BSBI. It is hoped we can collect valuable data to improve our knowledge of the current distribution of some common plants. All data will be fully validated by both partners before loading to Biodiversity Maps and being made available to the BSBI.
Parnell J. and Curtis T. (2012) Webb’s An Irish Flora. Cork: Cork University Press 8th ed.
Preston C.D., Pearman D.A. and Dines T.D. (2002) New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora: An Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Rose F. and O’Reilly C. (2006) The Wild Flower Key: how to identify wild flowers, trees and shrubs in Britain and Ireland. London: Frederick Warne rev. ed.
Stace C. (2010) New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge; New York : Cambridge University Press 2010 3rd ed.
Photos of Primula leaves from www.aphotoflora.com, with kind permission.