Taxonomy

Rana temporaria | Common Frog

Distribution

Status

Conservation status

HABITATS DIRECTIVE ARTICLE 17 REPORTING
Range
Favourable
Population
Favourable
Habitat
Favourable
Future Prospects
Favourable
Overal Assessment of Conservation Status
Favourable
Overal trend in Conservation Status
N / A

Source: NPWS 2013.

IUCN Conservation Status
Ireland (1)
Least Concern
Europe (2)
Least Concern
Global (2)
Least Concern

Sources: (1) King, J.L. et al 2011; (2) Kuzmin et al 2009.



Legal status

Protected by the following legal instruments:

  • EU Habitats Directive [92/43/EEC] Annex V
  • Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention) Appendix III
  • Wildlife Act, 1976
  • Wildlife Amendment Act, 2000
  • Wildlife (N.I.) Order 1985 as amended.

Source: King, J.L. et al 2011

Native status

Native.

Species Biology

Identification

Over most of the country this is unmistakable as it is the only native species of frog that occurs in Ireland.

Could be confused with the Natterjack Toad in the Dingle and Iveragh peninsulas, but the latter species has a yellow band running down the middle of the back and has a general ‘warty’ appearance.

The spawn of frogs is laid in clumps whereas that of the Natterjack Toad is laid in strips.

Sources: King, J.L. et al 2011; Reid et al 2013; Beebee, T.J.C.

Habitat

Uses a broad habitat range and has a relatively broad diet.

Source: Marnell, 1999.

Habitats include but are not necessarily limited to;

  • Lakes and Ponds (FL)
  • Grassland and Marsh (G)
  • Wet Heath (HH3)
  • Peatlands (P)
  • Woodland and Scrub (W)
  • Dune Slacks (CD5)
  • Machair (CD6)
  • Riparian.
Sources: Marnell, F., 1999; Fossitt, J.A., 2001.

Reproduction

Spawning can occur from early spring.

Tadpoles hatch within two weeks and mature over a period of two to three months, metamorphosing to froglets in early Summer.

It may take two to three years to reach sexual maturity.


Sources: King, J.L. et al 2011; Reid et al 2013.

Threats faced

THREAT
ARTICLE 17 THREAT CODE
RANKING
Cultivation
A01
Low
Intensive grazing
A04.01
Low
Abandonment of pastoral systems, lack of grazing 
A04.03
Low
Removal of hedges and copses or scrub
A10.01
Low
Invasive non-native species 
I01 Low
Forest and Plantation management and use
B02
Low
Peat extraction
C01.03
Low
Urbanised area, human habitation
E01
Low
Outdoor sports and leisure activities, recreational activities
G01
Low
Pollution to surface waters (limnic & terrestrial, marine & brackish)
H01
Low
Infilling of ditches, dykes, ponds, pools, marshes or pits
J02.01.03
Low
Drying out
K01.03
Low
Biocenotic evolution, succession
K02
Low
Predation
K03.04
Low

Source: NPWS 2013.

The 2011 Irish Red List of Amphibians,Reptiles and Freshwater Fish notes that while Chyrtid fungal disease (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus have been an issue for populations of Common Frog in Britain as yet neither disease has been identified in populations in Ireland

Source: King, J.L. et al 2011;

Conservation actions

In the Article 17 Habitats Directive reporting for the period 2007-2012 no Conservation Actions implemented or being implemented during the period are listed.

Source: NPWS 2013.

The 2009 IUCN European regional Red List assessment for this species notes the localised threats of:

  • general pollution and drainage of breeding sites and wetlands

Source: Kuzmin et al 2009.

Distribution

World distribution(GBIF)

Widespread and abundant. From Norway and Sweden, Britain and Ireland through the Balkans to Kazakhstan, to Greece and to Spain although absent from areas of Italy and Iberia.

Source: Kuzmin et al 2014.

Accuracy of world distribution shown in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) map below will be constrained by, amongst other factors, data held but not shared by countries and organizations not participating in the GBIF.

Irish distribution

Widespread and common, recorded from every county from sea-level to upland areas.






Distribution frequency in Ireland


Temporal change

Records submitted to Data Centre in 2020

The following map is interactive. If you would prefer to view it full screen then click here.

How can you help

The National Biodiversity Data Centre is trying to improve our knowledge on the distribution of the Common Frog in Ireland. Should you observe this species, please submit sighting to add to the database. Detailed observations will assist us gaining a better insight into where the Common Frog is most abundant in Ireland and we might also be able to detect regional variations. Please submit any sightings and photographs at:


http://records.biodiversityireland.ie/index.php

All records submitted on line can be viewed on Google Maps – once checked and validated these will be added to the database and made available for conservation and research.

Further information

For further information contact Dr. Liam Lysaght llysaght@biodiversityireland.ie

References

Publications

Beebee, T.J.C. (2002) The Natterjack Toad Bufo calamita in Ireland: current status and conservation requirements. Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 10.

Fossitt, J.A. (2001) A Guide to Habitats in Ireland. The Heritage Council.

King, J.L., Marnell, F., Kingston, N., Rosell, R., Boylan, P., Caffrey, J.M., FitzPatrick, Ú., Gargan,
P.G., Kelly, F.L., O’Grady, M.F., Poole, R., Roche, W.K. & Cassidy, D. (2011) Ireland Red List No. 5:
Amphibians, Reptiles & Freshwater Fish. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Arts,
Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Dublin, Ireland.

Kuzmin S., Ishchenko V., Tuniyev B., Beebee T., Andreone F., Nyström P., Anthony B., Schmidt B., Ogrodowczyk A., Ogielska M., Bosch J., Miaud C., Loman J., Cogalniceanu D., Kovács T., Kiss I. 2009. Rana temporaria. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 08 January 2015.

Marnell, F. 1999. The distribution of the common frog Rana temporaria L. in Ireland. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 23: 60 – 70.

NPWS (2013) The Status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland.  Species Assessments Volume 3. Version 1.0. Unpublished Report, National Parks & Wildlife Services. Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Dublin, Ireland.

Reid, N., Dingerkus, S.K., Stone, R.E., Pietravalle, S., Kelly, R., Buckley, J., Beebee, T.J.C. & Wilkinson,J.W. (2013) National Frog Survey of Ireland 2010/11.Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 58. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Dublin, Ireland.






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