Rana temporaria | Common Frog
|HABITATS DIRECTIVE ARTICLE 17 REPORTING|
|Future Prospects ||Favourable|
|Overal Assessment of Conservation Status||Favourable|
|Overal trend in Conservation Status||N / A|
Source: NPWS 2013.
|IUCN Conservation Status|
|Ireland (1)||Least Concern|
|Europe (2)||Least Concern|
|Global (2)||Least Concern|
Sources: (1) King, J.L. et al 2011; (2) Kuzmin et al 2009.
Protected by the following legal instruments:
- EU Habitats Directive [92/43/EEC] Annex V
- Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention) Appendix III
- Wildlife Act, 1976
- Wildlife Amendment Act, 2000
- Wildlife (N.I.) Order 1985 as amended.
Source: King, J.L. et al 2011
Over most of the country this is unmistakable as it is the only native species of frog that occurs in Ireland.
Could be confused with the Natterjack Toad in the Dingle and Iveragh peninsulas, but the latter species has a yellow band running down the middle of the back and has a general ‘warty’ appearance.
The spawn of frogs is laid in clumps whereas that of the Natterjack Toad is laid in strips.
Sources: King, J.L. et al 2011; Reid et al 2013; Beebee, T.J.C.
Uses a broad habitat range and has a relatively broad diet.
Source: Marnell, 1999.
Habitats include but are not necessarily limited to;
- Lakes and Ponds (FL)
- Grassland and Marsh (G)
- Wet Heath (HH3)
- Peatlands (P)
- Woodland and Scrub (W)
- Dune Slacks (CD5)
- Machair (CD6)
Spawning can occur from early spring.
Tadpoles hatch within two weeks and mature over a period of two to three months, metamorphosing to froglets in early Summer.
It may take two to three years to reach sexual maturity.
Sources: King, J.L. et al 2011; Reid et al 2013.
||ARTICLE 17 THREAT CODE
|Abandonment of pastoral systems, lack of grazing
|Removal of hedges and copses or scrub
|Invasive non-native species
|Forest and Plantation management and use
|Urbanised area, human habitation
|Outdoor sports and leisure activities, recreational activities
|Pollution to surface waters (limnic & terrestrial, marine & brackish)
|Infilling of ditches, dykes, ponds, pools, marshes or pits
|Biocenotic evolution, succession
Source: NPWS 2013.
The 2011 Irish Red List of Amphibians,Reptiles and Freshwater Fish notes that while Chyrtid fungal disease (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus have been an issue for populations of Common Frog in Britain as yet neither disease has been identified in populations in Ireland
Source: King, J.L. et al 2011;
In the Article 17 Habitats Directive reporting for the period 2007-2012 no Conservation Actions implemented or being implemented during the period are listed.
Source: NPWS 2013.
The 2009 IUCN European regional Red List assessment for this species notes the localised threats of:
- general pollution and drainage of breeding sites and wetlands
Source: Kuzmin et al 2009.
Widespread and abundant. From Norway and Sweden, Britain and Ireland
through the Balkans to Kazakhstan, to Greece and to Spain although
absent from areas of Italy and Iberia.
Source: Kuzmin et al 2014.
Widespread and common, recorded from every county from sea-level to upland areas.
Distribution frequency in Ireland
Records submitted to Data Centre in 2023
The following map is interactive. If you would prefer to view it full screen then click here.
How can you help
The National Biodiversity
Data Centre is trying to improve our knowledge on the distribution of
the Common Frog in Ireland. Should you observe this species,
please submit sighting
to add to the database. Detailed observations will assist us gaining a
insight into where the Common Frog is most abundant in Ireland and we
also be able to detect regional variations. Please submit any sightings
and photographs at:
For further information contact Dr. Liam Lysaght email@example.com
Beebee, T.J.C. (2002) The Natterjack Toad Bufo calamita in Ireland: current status and conservation requirements. Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 10.
Fossitt, J.A. (2001) A Guide to Habitats in Ireland. The Heritage Council.
King, J.L., Marnell, F., Kingston, N., Rosell, R., Boylan, P., Caffrey, J.M., FitzPatrick, Ú., Gargan,
P.G., Kelly, F.L., O’Grady, M.F., Poole, R., Roche, W.K. & Cassidy, D. (2011) Ireland Red List No. 5:
Amphibians, Reptiles & Freshwater Fish. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Arts,
Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Dublin, Ireland.
Kuzmin S., Ishchenko V., Tuniyev B., Beebee T., Andreone F., Nyström P., Anthony B., Schmidt B., Ogrodowczyk A., Ogielska M., Bosch J., Miaud C., Loman J., Cogalniceanu D., Kovács T., Kiss I. 2009. Rana temporaria. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 08 January 2015.
Marnell, F. 1999. The distribution of the common frog Rana temporaria L. in Ireland. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 23: 60 – 70.
NPWS (2013) The Status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. Species Assessments Volume 3. Version 1.0. Unpublished Report, National Parks & Wildlife Services. Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Dublin, Ireland.
Reid, N., Dingerkus, S.K., Stone, R.E., Pietravalle, S., Kelly, R., Buckley, J., Beebee, T.J.C. & Wilkinson,J.W. (2013) National Frog Survey of Ireland 2010/11.Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 58. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Dublin, Ireland.