Boloria euphrosyne | Pearl-bordered Fritillary | Fritileán péarlach
Ireland: Endangered (Regan et al., 2010)
Europe: Least Concern (van Swaay et al., 2010)
Climate risk category: Potential Climate Change Risk; present distribution in Europe can be explained by climate to only a limited extent (Settele et al., 2008).
The Pearl-bordered Fritillary is not afforded legal protection in Ireland.
Key identification features include:
- Medium size, wingspan: 38 - 47 mm
- Rich orange colouration
- Underside of the hindwing bordered by a series of distinct white "pearls".
Restricted to the Burren, southeast Galway and the Aran Islands: grassy forest clearings; unimproved dry calcareous grassland; limestone pavement. Adults fly briskly through open hazel scrub and sunlit woodland margins and rides (Bond & Gittings, 2008).
Univoltine: flies from May to June.
An egg is laid on either the undersurface, or less often, the upper surface of the leaves of the foodplant; or on leaf debris in the immediate vicinity of the foodplant; usually laid singly, sometimes in pairs. After hatching in July or August the larvae feed until about early October, then enter diapause, feeding again from about late March to late April. The larvae spend much of the time in dry curled leaves on the ground, emerging to feed on the young tender leaves of the foodplant or to bask; frequently leaving only bare stalks as evidence of feeding. Overwintering in larval diapause and pupating in late April, suspended from a silken pad in a loose structure spun up in vegetation (Bond & Gittings, 2008).
The main foodplants are believed to be Common Dog-Violet (Viola riviniana) and Marsh Violet (V. palustris); but the latter is poorly represented in the Irish distribution of this species (Bond & Gittings, 2008).
Generalist, both sexes are commonly seen feeding on: Bird's Foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), Bugle (Ajuga reptans), Buttercup
(Ranunculus spp.) and Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non–scriptus), but Dandelion (Taraxacum agg.), Hawkweeds (Hieracium/Hypochoeris), Ragged Robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi), Selfheal (Prunella vulgaris), Thistles (Cirsium spp. and Carduus spp.) and Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) are also known to be used.
It is widespread throughout Europe, Russia and temperate Asia.
Records submitted to Data Centre in 2021
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Bond, K.G.M. and Gittings, T. 2008. Database of Irish Lepidoptera. 1 - Macrohabitats, microsites and traits of Noctuidae and butterflies. Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 35. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.
Regan, E.C., Nelson, B., Aldwell, B., Bertrand, C., Bond, K., Harding, J., Nash, D., Nixon, D. and Wilson, C.J. 2010. Ireland Red List No. 4 – Butterflies. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Ireland.
Settele, J., Kudrna, O., Harpke, A., Kühn, I., Van Swaay, C., Verovnik, R., Warren, M.S., Wiemers, M., Hanspach, J., Hickler, T. and Kühn, E. 2008. Climatic risk atlas of European butterflies. Sofia-Moscow: Pensoft.
Van Swaay, C., Cuttelod, A., Collins, S., Maes, D., López Munguira, M., Šašic, M., Settele, J., Verovnik, R., Verstrael, T., Warren, M., Wiemers, M. and Wynhof, I. 2010. European Red List of Butterflies. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.